Partnership for Peace
- Presentation document
- Framework document
- "Partnership for Peace " Proogram was launched in 1994 as a program of practical bilateral cooperation between NATO , as a whole, and individual states that participate in it . The main objective of the Partnership is to promote reform, development of mutual trust as well as increasing the ability of partner countries’ capacities to maintain peace and security on a voluntary, flexible and transparent basis .
Cooperation within the "Partnership for Peace" program is conducted at the level and pace that is individually determined by each partner country. "The Partnership for Peace " is based on cooperation and joint action of the defense system of a sovereign state, however, the states are not legally bound but only respect the principles of voluntarism and self- diferentiation.
The entire path of development of the "Partnership for Peace" initiative has been marked by specific measures to improve it and make it more operational. Since its inception, the Program has served as a model for other forms of partnership between NATO, such as, for example, the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative.
The previous period has seen an intensified integration processes of all the existing cooperation programmes so that the mechanisms developed under the auspices of the Partnership for Peace Programme become open to other cooperation initiatives to partners as well.
- The Republic of Serbia in the Partnership for Peace Programme
Since the period when the Republic of Serbia was an integral part of SFRY to date, Serbia had various forms of cooperation with NATO,from a formal alliance within the Third Balkan Pact (1948-1953 ), to training and education of members of JNA in NATO member states. The intensity of this cooperation varied depending on political developments in recent decades.
A concrete step in establishing cooperation in the framework of the "Partnership for Peace " was made in late April 2002 when the FRY government the recommendation of the Supreme Defence Council to start the process of joining this programme.
The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro submitted on 19 June 2003 an official petition for membership in the NATO "Partnership for Peace" program. In order to prepare the Union for participation in the "Partnership for Peace" NATO on 30 June 2003, a special program for Serbia and Montenegro was launched : A Tailored Cooperation Programme , TCP. This Tailored Cooperation Programme included participation in courses at the NATO School in Oberammergau, Germany including various seminars and conferences,the largest contribution being the participation in military exercises of the "Partnership for Peace " .
On 19 June 2003, the Serbia and Montenegro State Union submitted an official application to the Alliance for the accession to the NATO Partnership for Peace Programme. In order to prepare the State Union for the participation in the Partnership for Peace Programme, NATO launched a special programme fro Serbia and Montenegro, on 30 June 2003: Tailored Cooperation Programme (TCP) The Tailored Cooperation Programme included participation in courses at the NATO School in Oberammergau, Germany, seminars and conferences, and the largest contribution was the participation of the members of the Armed Forces, as observers, in a number of military exercises under the Partnership for Peace Programme.
The Republic of Serbia was invited to join the "Partnership for Peace " at the NATO summit in Riga on 29 November 2006 , together with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. In line with this invitation and the decision of the Government of the Republic of Serbia, Serbian President Boris Tadic signed the Framework Document on14 December 2006 in Brussels thus making Serbia a formal participant of the "Partnership for Peace”. Furthermore, the Presentation Document of the Republic which outlines the goals of Serbia within the "Partnership for Peace " clearly states that Serbia's participation in the "Partnership for Peace " is in line with the economic , financial, human, material and other capabilities.
Republic of Serbia, as each partner state, independently drafted its respective Presentation Document where it defines its political agenda regarding participation in the "Partnership for Peace " where the areas of cooperation of interest for the fulfillment of these goals were delineated, as well as the resources and assets that Serbia intends to place at disposal for PfP signatories' use. This paper presented a political- military framework for the scope, intensity and content of cooperation with NATO. In addition, this is the only document that partner states independently produce , while all the others are a result of harmonization and agreement.
Committed to the promotion of cooperation and joint action with NATO members and other partner countries to build a global , regional and national security , Serbia in its Presentation Document is ready to assume its part of responsibility for a stable and lasting peace in the region, to participate in peacekeeping operations of the UN and achieve interoperability of the armed forces with those of NATO member states. The Republic of Serbia through its engagement in the activities of the common security and defense policy and participation in the "Partnership for Peace " strengthen their own security through dialogue and cooperation and contribute to peace and stability in the region, strengthening of good neighborly relations and resolving all issues peacefully.
In its Presentation Document , Serbia stated its intention to actively participate in the "Partnership for Peace " , based on the current contents of the program , as well as the cooperation with the Alliance. Serbia also highlights the willingness to participate in almost all the established mechanisms of the "Partnership for Peace" program , including the Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP ) , which suggests the possibility of intensive cooperation with NATO to meet mutual interests . In February 2011 the Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted a resolution on initializing procedures for drafting IPAP between RS and NATO for a period of two years, and in accordance with the stipulated procedure, the document was approved in the NATO Headquarters on 15th January 2015.
The Presentation Document of Serbia , unlike other presentation documents of regional countries does envision Serbia's membership in NATO , but rather excludes the participation of Serbia in Membership Action Plan (MAP ) as the mechanism of the "Partnership for Peace " which is a comprehensive preparation program for joining the Alliance.
1. Mechanisms of cooperation with NATO
Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme
Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme (IPCP) is the basic mechanism of cooperation between a partner country and NATO, which has been known since recently as a Final List of Events (FLE).
IPCP provides self-determination and access to the activities of the "Partnership for Peace " . The basis of the program is the Partnership Cooperation Menu, PCM, which contains a list of over 1,500 activities, out of which MoD and SAF chose a number of activities for their IPCP (100-160) every year.
By participating in activities organized by NATO in the IPCP , such as seminars , courses, conferences and exercises, MoD and SAF members acquire new skills and share experiences with members of the armed forces of NATO Members and Partners.
The Involvement of Serbia in the IPP and co-operation is not inconsistent with the proclaimed military neutrality , as evidenced by the fact that traditionally and internationally recognized neutral countries , such as Austria and Switzerland , as advanced Alliance partners, use this mechanism of cooperation with the NATO among other mechanisms.
Integrity Building Programme
- Integrity Building Program is part of the NATO’s project which seeks to confirm its commitment to the idea of strengthening good management in the department of defense and security sector. It was originally launched as an initiative, entitled the Partnership Action Plan on Defence Institution Building, PAP- DIB, at the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council meeting in November 2007.
The main objectives of the program are to raise awareness, to promote best practices and the development of practical mechanisms that can assist the participating countries to improve the situation of integrity and lower the risk of the presence of corruption in the national security sector , strengthening transparency and accountability. Activities under the program are directed toward the problem of managing financial resources, material and human resources.
The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Serbia has joined the NATO Bulding Integrity Initiative in December 2011 while since December 2012 it participates in the NATO Building Integrity Tailored Programme for South Eastern Europe, which is realized through the cooperation process of Southeast Europe Defence Ministerial (SEDM ) cooperation process.
In the past period, the following activities have been executed: self-assessment and peer review of integrity in the defense of the Republic of Serbia, in cooperation with the expert team of NATO have been conducted, and participation in numerous international conferences, workshops and training programs, national and international, have been dedicated to issues of integrity building. Moreover, the Ministry of Defense hosted an international workshop entitled " The integrity of the budgeting and financing" , held in Belgrade in June 2013. In the period of June 11-13, 2014, the Ministry of Defence hosted an international workshop titled “Integrity in outsourcing in public-private partnerships”. Ministry of Defense regulary sends its representatives to activities under the auspices of the Building Integrity Programme. The experience of MoD and SAF from the participation in the said programme was published in a book on "Building Integrity:processes and influences - Serbia".
NATO Committees and Working Groups
Joining the "Partnership for Peace" program has allowed access to numerous committees and working groups open to NATO partners, as a forum for discussion on current issues relevant to the partnership and the Euro-Atlantic security in the region. Representatives of the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Armed Forces high levels actively participate in the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Military Committee (EAPMC ) , Political Partnership Committee (PPC) , the Conference of National Armaments Directors ( CNAD ) , the Committee on Codification ( AS/135 ) , the Committee of NATO Military Medical Services chiefs (COMEDS ), the Logistics Committee ( LC ) , the Committee for Standardization (CS) and NATO Consultation , Command and Control Board( NC3B ). In addition, the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Armed Forces participate in a number of working groups at the expert level, of which the most important can be extracted as a working group of the Military Cooperation Committee (MCWG / COOP + PfP) , the Working Group on the movement and transport ( AC/305 M & TG), Medical Health Care Working Group ( MHC WG ) Capability Acquisition and Sustainmen Group (CASG) and the panels organiyed under the auspices of the NATO Science and Tehnology Organisation.Participation in the work of these working bodies provides conditions for building operational capabilities of the Serbian Armed Forces, achieving interoperability of our armed forces and support for the defence reform.
Planning and Review Process PARP
The Planning and Review Process PARP is a basic mechanism of the "Partnership for Peace " through which the declared units reach interoperability with those state which implement community standards of Allied Command Operations , as well as the further development of operational and functional capabilities of tasks. The process is almost identical to the NATO force planning process.
Serbian Armed Forces have declared several of its units for joint activities of the "Partnership for Peace " through PARP.
In order to achieve interoperability with NATO members and other participants in the "Partnership for Peace " , the Republic of Serbia agreed with the Alliance agreed on the Partnership goals. By reaching goals of the partnership SAF units are implementing modern military standards that have been accepted and the EU member states thus contributing to achieving the objectives of the foreign policy of the Republic of Serbia who predicted the most important strategic documents state.
Operational Capabilities Concept
Operational Capabilities Concept OCC is the mechanism of the "Partnership for Peace" program through which the predeclared units according to NATO standards can be trained and evaluated. The Republic of Serbia , as well as all other members of the "Partnership for Peace " , through this Operational Capabilities Concept has declared forces and capacities it made available for PfP’s needs.
This mechanism of the "Partnership for Peace " significantly contributes to the establishment of peaceful forms of cooperation serving as an important framework for the joint exercises and various forms of training with members of NATO. The operational capabilities concept is one of the most measurable, visible and successful cooperation mechanisms.
Participation in the OCC grants the partners access to the NATO procedures and standards that have been tested and proven previously, and therefore represent the only measure of the achieved level of interoperability. By using the tools, the OCC partners can significantly improve their defence capacities.
A special and important form of the cooperation in the lines of the aforementioned mechanisms is referral of persons from partnership countries to headquarter positions in the frame of the NATO command structure.
Individual Partnership Action Plan-IPAP
The Individual Partnership Action Plan, IPAP, was established at the NATO summit in Prague 2002 representing an intensive form of institutional cooperation with the Alliance to assist partner countries in reforming and modernizing their defense system and fully adjusts to the needs of partners making Presentation Document for participation in IPAP. It is drafted every other year, but can be updated on an annual basis after the partner countries have annual information.
Cooperation of a partner country with NATO through IPAP is organized in the areas of political importance and questions of security policy, defense security and military issues, public information , science , environment and emergency planning , and administrative matters and issues of security and resources.
The Government of the Republic of Serbia on its session held on 24 Feb 2011 adopted the conclusion on initiating the drafting of IPAP, while the Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent NATO a letter of intent to join the IPAP in March 2011. IPAP Presentation Document between the Republic of Serbia and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization adopted by the Government at the meeting held on 14 July 2011, while an interagency delegation of the Republic of Serbia onpresented IPAP document in Brussels on 25 November 2011. On 20th December 2014, the Government of the Republic of Serbia adopted the Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) between the Republic of Serbia and NATO for a period of two years, and in accordance with the stipulated procedure, the document was approved in the NATO Headquarters on 15th January 2015. Implementation of goals and activities stated in IPAP is underway.
The table overview of the objectives and activities of the IPAP include a list of activities , timelines and resources to achieve the planned objectives in the fields of security, defense reform , fight against corruption , environment protection, the economy and issues in the field of general democratic reform and human rights.
Partnership for Peace Trust Fund
NATO has provided a significant contribution to the reform of the defense system by establishing two trust funds of the "Partnership for Peace". In March 2005, the Trust Fund project was launched intended for the stockpile destruction of anti-personnel mines, with funding of around 1.7 million EUR, a donation made by 12 countries. NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency, NAMSA was determined as the executive agency for the implementation of the project. The sub-contractors of the Project were the Technical Repair Bureau (TRZ ) in Kragujevac and the company " Prva iskra " Baric , where TRZ Kragujevac performed the destruction of mines , and the company " Prva iskra " was tasked withdemilitarisation of explosives for commercial purposes. The project lasted for 2 years and was successfully completed in May 2007, with a total of about 1.4 million anti-personnel landmines destroyed.
In addition, in January, 2006 , a new Trust Fund to support the employment of redundant militray personnel. International Organization for Migrations , IOM was selected to carry out the project , as it has significant experience in the area of reduction of redundant military personnel and with their reintegration into the civilian sector . Under the auspices of the project some 9.6 million euros were spent in various forms of direct assistance to individuals in the program for the start up business in the civilian sector for costs of administration , maintenance and evaluation of the project , capacity building programs to support career change , as well as many promotional activities to ensure transparency of the project.
During 2013, a new NATO Trust Fund for the Republic of Serbia was established for the purpose of destruction of surplus ammunition and improving the capacity of TRZ Kragujevac, thus creating conditions for it to grow into a regional demilitarisation centre. The United Kingdom has accepted the role of a leading country in the project, where the NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) is the executive body in its implementation. So far, financial contribution to NFT has been made by the USA, the UK, Italy, Switzerland, Ireland, Hungary, Turkey, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Norway and Germany. The said Trust Fund was officialy launched on 24th March 2016, by entry into force of the Implementation Agreement, while the opening ceremony of the said fund was realised on 12th October 2016.
2. Specific forms of cooperation between the Republic of Serbia and NATO
Serbia - NATO Defence Reform Group
The initiative for the establishment of DRG (Defence Reform Group) as joint body of former Ministry of Defence of Serbia and Montenegro and NATO, was launched by the Kingdom of Norway, as a contact point embassy with NATO in 2005.This initiative was launched in order to increase support for the Alliance in the process of defense reform in Serbia and Montenegro , in the circumstances of intense work on the first Strategic Defence Review . In December 2006, the North Atlantic Council approved the establishment of the Serbia Montenegro Defence Reform Group after months of consultations in NATO , through the Political Committee and PFP Political-Military Steering Committee. Following the necessary administrative preparations and decisions of the competent authorities of Serbia and Montenegro a new, unique mechanism of cooperation between Serbia and NATO was established without precedent in the Alliance`s relations with any other country. The Group was tasked with:
- accelerating and providing support for defence reform,
- promoting interdepartmental cooperation with a view to better coordination and communication related to the vision of development,
- introducing models of the project-oriented approach to reforms,
- encouraging NATO member states to better coordinate bilateral activities in support of defence system reform, and
- preparatory activities for involvement in the Partnership for Peace Programme.
The work of the Group in the period between 2005 and 2008 was assessed as hihgly successful, and the experience gained so far suggests that it largely facilitates the inter-departmental approach to the processes relevant to the defence reform and engagement in the Partnership for Peace Programme.
During the 12th meeting of the Serbia - NATO Defence Reform Group held on 30 June 2010 at the Guard House in Topcider, the work of this Serbia-NATO cooperative mechanism was resumed after a two-year break, and the bodies to support the activities of the Group were st up. The meeting was attended by defence attaches and representatives of the NATO and EU member states` embassies.
Owing to the renewed activities of the Group, the Republic of Serbia receives bilateral partner states` support in pursuing the set Partnership Goals under the Planning and Review Process. The support from partner nations largely consists of joint efforts made in the process of developing particular projects whose implementation directly impacts the development of the capacity and capabilities of the MoD and SAF.
Serbian Armed Forces - KFOR Cooperation in the Field
The legal framework for cooperation between the Serbian Army and KFOR are UN Security Council Resolution 1244 and the Military Technical Agreement . The Serbian Army has built a specific mechanism of cooperation with NATO - Partnership in the field of the common task of building peace and security in the areas of responsibility , on both sides of the administrative boundary line.
Obligations and duties arising from the Military Technical Agreement, which was signed in June in 1999 , are consistently enforced.
The lines of communication between the Army of Serbia and KFOR are established at all levels.
Pursuant to the signed agreements in place, meetings between representatives of the Republic of Serbia and NATO , according to the signed agreements , are held at the local , coordination , command, and high levels.
High level meetings are held in accordance with the needs and agreements reached beween SAF CHOD and the Chief Commander of KFOR . The meetings focus on exchange information on security along the administrative line , all activities are cordinated, confirmed and approvedof activities in the field. One off patrols along the administrative line and joint reconnaissance activities add to the serious level of coperation. Simultaneous patrols of the Serbian Army and KFOR , the level of security along the boundary is raised to a higher level .
The achieved level of cooperation between the Serbian Army and KFOR is characterized by a high degree of trust, respect and mutual understanding.
The Defense Education Enhancement Program (DEEP)
The Defense Education Enhancement Program (DEEP) is an innovative multi-national education initiative that is designed to assist Partner and other interested states to build capacity through defense education reform and incorporate values associated with the spirit of the Partnership for Peace Program. The initiative was developed by the PfP Consortium (PfPC). The Consortium’s operations staff is located at the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies in Garmisch, Germany. The DEEP program was launched in 2007 in response to stakeholder policy objectives of Building Partner Capacity and Defense Institution Building, and is currently being implemented in 13 states.
The Republic of Serbia was officially engaged in the Program for improving education in the field of defence in February 2014, so as to continue with the reform of education plans and programs on all levels of studies in military educational institutions, and to adopt European and NATO standards in the field of professional military education and accreditation and/or reaccreditation of programs compliant with demands of the Bologna Declaration.
In the previous period, under the auspices of DEEP, a series of visits of delegation of the Defence University to national defence universities of several European countries has been conducted (Austria, Romania, Czech Republic), and a line of activities has also been conducted in our country. Among the most important is the international workshop/seminar for teacher training, held on April 6-11, 2014 at the Military Academy, which hosted over 40 teachers from 11 countries. It has been planned that in the course of the year 2017, a series of traninig events should be provided for the teaching staff in higher education institutions as well as activities associated with NCO training and education and cooperation in the area of military chemical engineering.
3. Institutionalized forms of cooperation
NATO Military Liaison Office
An agreement on the transit arrangements between Serbia and Montenegro and NATO , as well as the launch of the Serbia - NATO Defence Reform Group, have made it necessary to strengthen the direct institutional links between Serbia and NATO . Pursuant to the agreement between the Ministry of Defence of Serbia and NATO signe don 18 December 2006 , in Belgrade a NATO Military Liaison Office was opened in the MoD building.
In the subordination line in NATO, the NATO Joint Forces Command in Naples is responsible for the functioning of the Belgrade Liaison Office. Responsibilities of the Office include: implementation of the transit arrangements , support to NATO and EU forces (EUFOR ) engaged in the region, supporting the work of the Serbia -NATO defense reform froup, cooperation in the field of public diplomacy , as well as other additional tasks approved by the North Atlantic Council .
The MLO also provides suport for the Republic of Serbia in terms of the military aspects of Serbia`s involvement in the Partnership for Peace Programme, and military support largely for the political role of the NATO member country designated to act as the Contact Point Embassy for liaison between Serbia and NATO for a period of two years.
Military Representative Office of the Republic of Serbia's mission to NATO
The Military Representative of the Mission of the Republic of Serbia to NATO was established on 27 September 2010 with the main task to represent the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Armed Forces in NATO and EU headquarters in Brussels. An important aspect of the military mission is to represent the interests of the security and defense of the Republic of Serbia in NATO and the Permanent Missions of the Member States , participation in the NATO organizational units , and support the participation of the Ministry of Defence and the Serbian Armed Forces in the work of the NATO political-military , military and administrative organs . It also cooperates with NATO member states and reports on activities and developments in NATO. Military Representative of the Republic of SErbia's mission with NATO has a dual function , as in addition to the above tasks it performs tasks related to military cooperation with the EU , which provides a contribution to the most important foreign policy goal of the state - attaining the EU membership.
The Military Representative`s Office consists of the SAF Office and the Office of Defence in Brussels and the Liaison Team within the Militray Cooperation Office of the NATO in Mons, Belgium.