Ministry of defence Republic of Serbia

Modernised PASARS Considerably Strengthens Air Defence

Troop Air Defence plays very important role in protection of fraternal units and significant facilities against air attacks, thus, more and more attention is attached to it, and to modernisation of anti-aircraft systems, PASARS being one of them.
Anti-aircraft self-propelled artillery-missile system PASARS-16, a weapon based on “Bofors” 40mm gun, has underwent several phases of modernisation from its first presentation to the public till today.
The primary use of PASARS system is protection of Army units of the Serbian Armed Forces, chiefly armoured-mechanised and artillery-missile units during execution of combat activities, and defence of important facilities and installation against air attacks. This system is efficient in fight against unmanned aerial vehicles, combat helicopters, cruising missiles, low-flying aircraft, and in engagements on targets on the ground and water.
The achievement of the modernisation is that the complex combat system PASARS possesses an anti-aircraft 40mm “Bofors” gun L/70, which is now mounted on the vehicle instead of   previous towed version, with an armoured driver’s and operator’s cabin, which considerably improved the protection of crew, mobility and speed of preparations for engagement. Fire management system now has integrated more modern central computer, sub-system for global positioning and its orientation, tactical computer of the weapon’s commander, radio-telecommunication device, receiver of data on a target, and electro-generator for system power supply.
System for automatic stabilisation and levelling, consisting of hydraulic arms and software that operates them, contributes to time necessary for emplacement of fire position being extremely short, less than a minute, while the firing rate on targets is five rounds per second. Gun feeding is done by means of a 44 round charger.
PASARS-16 is characterised by a high degree of ballistic protection, and possibility of engagement using modernised surveillance acquisition radar “Giraffe” and autonomous engagement with or without optic target indicator.
PASARS is another complex combat system produced by national industry. The Military Technical Institute was in charge of its development, and the project also included “Prva Petoletka Trstenik – Namenska”, as an integrator-manufacturer, “Zastava TERVO” and “FAP Priboj” as larger subcontractors.
The anti-aircraft system PASARS-16 with 40mm gun (the first variant) has been fielded in the Serbian Armed Forces, and the following modernisation phase is in progress with newly integrated subsystems and missiles ground to air (3 types).
Modernisation of PASARS system has already proved to be something that significantly contributes to increase of operational capabilities, which is another reason why the development of this weapon has been continued, since it should be a backbone of Army units’ defence against new generation of weapons such as drones and unmanned aerial vehicles.
In line with principles of spiral development of PASARS system, the final tests of the second phase of development are currently in progress, which is focused on new sub-systems that will be from now on integrated in all PASARSs. Upgrades of the second phase of modernisation include new diesel electrical generator and electrical energy sub-system, new sub-system for driver visualisation or the driving with front and back cameras by day and by night, new thermal vision sight and new sub-system for electronic timing of pre-fragmented ammunition.
The third phase of PASARS modernisation implies integration of missile system. One of those systems is missile system “Igla”. The Serbian Armed Forces possesses a great number of older, portable anti-aircraft missile systems such as “Igla” and “Strela”. These, so to say written of weapons, gain their importance again because with necessary modifications, they become efficient, and yet very cheap asset for neutralisation of new type targets that will appear in the theatres of future, which include various types of unmanned aerial vehicles. That is one of the reasons why they are integrated on PASARS system, which will, owing to the fact that it is equipped with self-guided anti-aircraft missiles, considerably increase its efficiency in battle against air targets.
Integration of missile system “Igla” with upgraded anti-aircraft gun is also important because it will serve for integration of IR self-guided missiles “Mistral 3” which are considered to be among the best in the world in their class.
“Mistral 3” represents the last generation of short range portable missile systems and it stands out with its range of advanced characteristics among which the most striking are high manoeuvring capabilities of the missile, long range which enables engaging aircraft at distance of up to 7,5 km, war head with great destructive power for certain neutralisation of a target, high resilience to passive and active systems for electronic jamming using technology of matrix infrared detector, capability of firing in complex weather conditions, by day and night using high sensitivity infrared cameras in its sighting system. Integration of “Mistral 3” with PASARS-16 system, one will have a lethal weapon capable of providing efficient AD protection of armoured and mechanised units directly from battle formation, and to open highly efficient fire on targets on the ground.
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